Roads, highways, or other construction projects require a lot of heavy-duty equipment for completion. Once the base structure completes, several processes like compaction, tarring, finishing, etc. begin. Giant machines compact the base after laborers add all the material layers.
A compactor machine is a vehicle or an apparatus that compresses the material by applying pressure to reduce the volume so no voids remain. These machines have different variants which you can rent or buy. Let’s see what kinds are available and where they work best.
What Do Compactor Machines Do?
Compactors are versatile and used in different projects, from landscapes to agriculture. They knead, press, and vibrate the loose material by applying high pressure so the foundation remains intact and doesn’t come loose.
The most common type of compactor is a road roller. However, other kinds like vibrating plates, tamping rammer, etc. are also available. Compactor machines compress asphalt, gravel, soil, and concrete to create a compact foundation. Commonly, they weigh around 1 to 20 tons. Although, the weight varies according to the size of the machine and the project requirements.
Types Of Compactor Machines
Drum Road Rollers
Drum rollers have two steel drums, one in the front and the other in the back, to smooth broad paths like highways and roads. They are efficient compared to other rollers as both drums work simultaneously. Drum rollers are best for flat or slightly gradual surfaces as they don’t have high traction.
A tamping rammer is a small-sized compactor machine that applies pressure on the soil to eliminate excessive voids. Usually, construction experts operate tamping rammers because they require great expertise for operation. A standard rammer has a frequency of about 500 to 700 blows per minute.
Tamping rammers use an engine to provide the necessary pressure and blow speed. Common variants available use two-stroke engines, four-stroke engines, or battery-operated.
The walk-behind compactors require the user to move and control the machine using a handle and walking behind. They come in various types; some use a heavy steel drum, while others use hydraulics and a drum to provide extra pressure. Walk-behind compactors are best for leveling narrower paths like pavements, streets, or sidewalks.
Vibration plates are hand-operated and walk-behind compactor machines. There is an engine that produces enough power to vibrate the hefty plates to create a compaction force. Vibrating plates work best for granular surfaces like soil and sand layers.
Pneumatic or tired rollers are heavy-duty compactors that level, compress and polish a project. Tired rollers have a couple of rubber tires in front or the back depending upon the model, that apply pressure on the surface. The tires are aligned, so the pressure throughout the roller width is consistent. Usually, pneumatic rollers are fit for CMB or soiled layers.
The Bottom Line
Layering construction materials like sand, cement, or asphalt leaves voids. Over time water can seep into these spaces and damage the structure. Therefore, the compaction process is necessary. Construction compactor machines come in driver-operated and walk-behind variants like rammers and road drum rollers.
When deciding on buying compactor machinery, evaluating the frequency of use is necessary. If you own a construction company, buying them is essential. However, renting is a more thoughtful decision if you occasionally require them.